Longevity and sustainability of tropical and subtropical restored seagrass beds among Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans
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Seagrass longevity up to 47 years in well-restored, well-sited seagrass restorations are demonstrated from 253 trials at 83 regional sites in tropical and subtropical portions of three oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans). These trials include over 3.04 million planted units into 306.3 ha. Approximately 12% of the total global tropical restored seagrass by Van Katwijk, Thorhaug et al. (2016) calculations from 1786 trials are included. Almost all projects herein reviewed persisted since date of planting except several cases with harsh anthropogenic impact or forceful natural events in first post-planting months. The oldest tropical/subtropical restoration continually observed is 47 yrs, many are 35 yrs. An array of observed and/or measured restored services accompanied these. This review may provide informational background for government resource managers, legislators, scientists, and citizens concerning tropical/subtropical seagrass longevity. This data from these trials may substantiate future seagrass restoration investments. Public outreach, national & regional government training,and outreach occurred, needing continuation.