To address environmental issues, society needs a deeper understanding of the natural world, and the ways we can regulate our own behavior. Faculty and students at F&ES conduct research in eight broadly conceived areas of environmental concern – biodiversity, forestry, global climate, industry, law and economics, urban systems, water, and social ecology. The scope of these programs reflects not just the complexity of human interaction with the environment, but the fact that the easy answers have been exhausted. As such, it is the mission of the F&ES faculty and students to conduct research that uncovers new knowledge, unique insights, and approaches that tie many fields together. This mission is further carried out by communicating the results of this research to the widest possible audience through publication, lectures, and other educational programs.

F&ES Research Funding


New Project Funding: Lisa Dale

Council of Western State Foresters Logo

Climate Change Synthesis
PI: Lisa Dale
Sponsor: Council of Western State Foresters $29,149
 
Summary: CWSF is interested in understanding actions underway in member states to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. Improved fluency on the state of play across the West provides an opportunity to highlight the critical role played by forestry in the evolving climate change discussion. Products developed by the YCELP team will empower Western state foresters and the Council to be centrally positioned in the climate change conversation, and will amplify the voice of foresters across the West. 

New Project Funding: Lisa Dale

UNEP

Mobilizing Climate Change Adaptation Knowledge through Global and Regional Networks
PI: Lisa Dale
Sponsor: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Division of Enviornment Policy Implementation, Kenya $20,000
 
Summary: The Paris Agreement raised the political profile of climate resilience. There is now a global goal for climate change adaptation and it is recognized that adaptation represents a challenge with local, national and international dimensions.  The UN Climate Resilience Initiative: Anticipate, Absorb, Reshape, known as A2R, is a global, UN led, multi-stakeholder initiative that seeks to strengthen climate resilience for vulnerable countries and people. It will bring together governments, international agencies, regional initiatives, the private sector, civil society and researchers.  The initiative seeks to accelerate action on key aspects of climate resilience under its three pillars:

  • Anticipate – Strengthen early warning-early action systems
  • Absorb – Establish and extend climate risk-transfer and social protection mechanisms
  • Reshape – Shift to climate resilient development pathways

New Project Funding: Angel Hsu

UNEP

Support to the 1 Gigaton Coalition
PI: Angel Hsu
Sponsor: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) $216,171
 
Summary: The 1 Gigaton Coalition supports platforms to measure and report GHG emission reductions resulting from renewable energy and energy efficiency programs so that these contributions are recognized and counted. The Coalition focuses on cooperation between countries and on bringing developing countries’ impacts to light. This voluntary international framework focuses on programs that are not fully understood due to a lack of quantifiable information to assess their impact –these often-overlooked activities will save an estimated 1 GtCO2e by 2020.  Yale University prepared the inaugural report of the 1Gt Coalition presented in December 2015 at the Paris COP.  The objective of this project is to support the 1 Gt Coalition in defining and preparing its second report due in November 2016. The support includes the selection of topics for inclusion in the second report of the coalition and the preparation of that report. 

New Project Funding: Karen Seto

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Urban Growth, Land-Use Change, and Growing Vulnerability in the Greater Himalaya Mountain Range Across India, Nepal, and Bhutan
PI: Karen Seto
Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration $749,815
 
Summary: Home to about 210 million people and extending over eight countries, the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is at the confluence of two major trends that together are transforming one of the most dynamic mountain systems in the world. First, the region is a hotspot for four natural hazards: earthquakes, fires, floods, and landslides. Over the past few years, the HKH region has experienced a number of devastating natural disasters, including a 7.5 magnitude Pakistan-Afghanistan earthquake in 2015, a glacial lake outburst flood in northern Bhutan in 2015, floods in Uttarakhand in 2013 that left nearly 6,000 dead and more than 100,000 people trapped, and the 7.8 magnitude earthquake in Nepal in 2015, that killed more than 9,000 people and injured more than 23,000.  Second, the HKH region is rapidly urbanizing. Fueled by migration from rural areas, valleys and plains, the growth of religious, ecological and adventure tourism, and recent social unrest, towns and urban centers are expanding. Although the region is still predominantly agrarian, migration to urban centers is increasingly an important livelihood strategy for rural households, and non-farm income is an increasing component of household incomes. As recently as 1981, less than 10% of the Himalayan population lived in a town or city. By 2000, the urban population in the region had doubled to 20%. The growing urban population, an urbanizing economy, and associated land use and land cover changes are transforming the Himalayas. Construction of buildings, deep roadcuts in steep hillsides, and unplanned urban development, all of which require cutting into bedrock or crossing geologically weak areas, have resulted in increased and more severe occurrences of hillside collapse, landslides, debris flows, rock slides, putting millions of people at risk.
 
Yet despite the vulnerability of the region and its people, the 2015 Nepal earthquake highlighted the lack of accurate and up-to-date information about urban settlements in the region and those most at risk in this coupled social-environmental system. The proposed research aims to fill these knowledge gaps by using multi-scale and multi-source satellite data applied to the Turner et al. (2003)and Luers et al. (2003)vulnerability frameworks to answer five inter-related research questions about the HKH region:
 

  1. How and where are urban settlements changing, and what are the associated land use and land cover changes with these changes?
  2. What are the frequency, magnitude, and duration of the four dominant natural hazards—earthquake, fire, flood, and landslides—and how do they vary over time and space?
  3. What is the sensitivity of the socio-economic system to different stressors?
  4. Where are urban settlements most vulnerable and to what stressors are they most vulnerable?
  5. What explains differences in the vulnerability of urban settlements across the HKH region? 

 
The proposed research includes three important innovations: to analyze urban change and associated land-use dynamics in a multi-country framework, to examine multiple dimensions of vulnerability, and to examine a contiguous geographic region that covers approximately 1.289 million km2 with the goal of capturing all types and sizes of urban settlement change. This approach is a marked departure from most other studies that focus solely on a few capital or large cities and their immediate surroundings. Through a coordinated research strategy that interweaves the entire Landsat TM time series for 41 scenes, high resolution commercial imagery from Quickbird and WorldView 1, 2, and 3, analysis of socioeconomic data related to sensitivity, and fieldwork, the project will quantify and map the vulnerability of the HKH region to different stressors.

New Project Funding: Tom Graedel

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EAGER: Preparing the Yale Metal Life Cycles Database for Global Distribution
PI: Tom Graedel; Co-PI:  Barbara Reck
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $233,784
 
Summary: Databases that result from academic research activities are increasingly deposited in accessible archives for the purpose of making them available for use by institutions and governments worldwide. These data are static, however – they have no provision for updating and enhancement nor the assurance of archive security and long-term preservation. In the case of material flow information, essential to the evaluation of metal use, recycling, import/exports flows, and losses to the environment, quantitative life cycle results have been published for some sixty elements, but rarely with the supporting information being publicly available and/or the detailed underlying and generated data available in a user-friendly format. Nonetheless, these cycles form the foundations for subsequent research related to materials sustainability, product lifetimes, international trade, carbon emissions, and many related topics. From this perspective, the present proposal seeks the necessary resources to fully document and transform the Yale archive of data on all aspects of materials sustainability for numerous metals and metalloids from its present form into a convenient, easily-accessed, and well-documented package. It will then be transferred to the U.S. Geological Survey for data formatting review, quality assessment, achieving, security, updating enhancement, and accessibility.

New Project Funding: Craig Brodersen

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Structure and Function of Whole-tree 3D Xylem Networks in Response to Past, Present, and Future Drought
PI: Craig Brodersen
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $463,788
 
Summary: Forest productivity is directly linked to the growth and maintenance of plant vascular systems that transport water from the soil to the leaves. Water is transported to the top of the canopy under below atmospheric pressure through a network of thousands of interconnected conduits collectively known as xylem. During drought tension on the xylem sap grows, leading to the formation of air bubbles in the xylem that spread from vessel to vessel, blocking water transport, reducing photosynthesis, and ultimately leading to death. Current theory suggests that this rapid loss of conductivity occurs at specific threshold, or tipping point, yet these tipping points are not well defined for most species, nor are the underlying mechanisms. Across the planet, tree species live precariously close to their physiological tipping point, and further climate change will undoubtedly unseat a number of tree species from their dominant positions in many ecosystems (Choat et al. 2012). Our ability to predict and plan for the conservation and management of our forest resources directly depends on our knowledge of water transport through plants. How trees organize the spatial distribution of xylem conduits and connections that either facilitate water and nutrient distribution, or prevent the spread of embolism is, therefore a key component to plant survival. Surprisingly, these traits persist as one of the most prominent gaps in our understanding of plant structure and function. Much of this uncertainty stems from our primitive understanding of 3D xylem connectivity and the difficulty in studying its spatial organization; the conduits are small, the tissue is opaque, and cutting into the tissue destroys the structure and obscures its function. Over the past eight years we have developed high resolution X-ray computed tomography (microCT) to move beyond traditional 2D microscopy with the specific goal of exploring 3D xylem network structure and function.

New Project Funding: Dan Maynard (Mark Bradford, faculty advisor)

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DISSERTATION RESEARCH: The functional consequences of antagonism in fungal communities
PI: Dan Maynard (Mark Bradford, faculty advisor)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $21,543
 
Summary: Dissertation research completed thus far directly links microbial trait expression to competitive ability and functional ability, suggesting that antagonistic interactions alter ecosystem function in ways that challenge traditional ecosystem models and ecological theory. In previously established field and laboratory experiments, microbial community composition explained a larger proportion of variability in ecosystem function than environmental conditions, highlighting the need to better understand how species interactions and community structure alters environmental function.  The PIs propose to expand their research to obtain three primary objectives: (1) develop a generalizable model for incorporating competitive network structure into traditional biodiversity-function experiments; (2) use this model to quantify how microbial combative interactions and competitive network structure alter ecosystem function; (3) determine how competitive intransitivity and combative interactions affect spatial structure and realized diversity of antagonistic communities.

New Project Funding: Reid Lifset

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Additive Manufacturing and the Environment: A Special Issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology
PI: Reid Lifset
Sponsor: United States Department of Energy $66,512
 
Summary: Additive manufacturing, best known to the public as 3-D printing, is a rapidly developing technology that holds out the promise of new capabilities and innovation in a wide variety of industries.  Because the core process is additive, in many cases, there is less waste—because no cuttings or grindings are produced as occurs in conventional machining processes.  AM sidesteps creation of molds and related manufacturing process, allowing production in response to actual demand, rather than forecast, demand.  AM also facilitates localized production.  3-D printers in homes and small businesses can be used to make objects one-at-a-time using software readily available via the Internet, avoiding the need to ship the final product to the user. 
 
As with any new technology, AM presents environmental opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include reduction of transport due to localized production, increased availability of spare parts, avoidance of excess production and inventory, decreased waste, and decentralized production creating the opportunity for diverse members of society to participate in design and manufacturing.  Challenges include the environmental footprint of raw materials, occupational health and safety issues, challenges to recycling, and increased shipping of raw materials to diverse locations.
 
While there is an extensive literature on the manufacturing aspects of AM, research on the environmental dimensions of additive manufacturing is more limited, largely focusing on energy consumption of machining and related unit processes. Nascent literatures on particulate and gaseous emissions from additive processing and life cycle assessment of AM are emerging.  The literatures are largely disconnected and not linked to scenarios regarding the potential environmental advantages of additive manufacturing.  The special issue aims to catalyze research and analysis and exchange across disciplines and literatures.
 
The Journal of Industrial Ecology, a peer-reviewed international bimonthly journal, owned by Yale University and published by Wiley-Blackwell, seeks funding for the publication of a special issue on environmental dimensions of additive manufacturing.

New Project Funding: Tom Graedel

UNEP

Small Scale Funding Agreement Relating to Integrated Scenarios Activity
PI: Tom Graedel
Sponsor: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) $100,000

Summary: The purpose of this agreement is for Yale University to conduct integrated scenario analyses related to the rates of use and environmental impacts of metal ores, non-metallic minerals, and other resources. Yale University’s expertise is well established to conduct research and produce an assessment on results from integrated scenarios. This agreement will result in enhanced understanding by governments and other stakeholders of the policy implications related to the results of the integrated scenario assessments.

New Project Funding: Michelle Bell

EPA Logo
SEARCH: Solutions for Energy, AiR, Climate, and Health
PI: Michelle Bell
Sponsor: EPA Air, Climate And Energy (ACE) Centers $9,999,990
 
Summary: SEARCH (Solutions for Energy, AiR, Climate, and Health) Center is a collaborative effort principally between Yale and Johns Hopkins Universities. The research conducted by this Center is motivated by the importance of impending major energy transitions facing the US over the next several decades. These transitions potentially interact with climate change and the responses to climate change, and all have potentially serious implications for regional air quality and thereby human health.  In addition these transitions encompass modifiable factors that can be changed to drive improved air quality.  The goal of the SEARCH Center is to characterize factors contributing to emissions, air quality and health associated with key energy energy-related transitions in order to understand how these factors affect regional and local differences in air pollution and public health effects.  In addition we hope to identify key modifiable factors (e.g. transportation sources, and power generation) and how those factors and their air pollution impacts are likely to change over time.

New Project Funding: Mary Tyrrell

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Support for Tribal Student Travel to Yale-ITC Symposium
PI: Mary Tyrrell
Sponsor: US Forest Service $5,000
 
Summary: The Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies co-hosted a symposium with the Intertribal Timber Council to explore some of the key challenges in Indian forestry management illustrated in the Third Indian Forestry Management Assessment Team report (IFMAT-III). The symposium focused on two principle areas: (1) reforming the federal trust relationship between Tribal Nations and the federal government as it pertains to forestry; and (2) workforce development to train the next generation of forestry and natural resource professionals for Tribal Nations. Eighteen young tribal members, who are studying natural resource management and forestry, were invited to attend the summit and participate in the discussion with the tribal resource managers, Yale students, and agency personnel.

New Project Funding: Tom Graedel

CMI
United States Criticality Scenarios, 2015-2050
PI: Thomas Graedel
Sponsor: Critical Materials Institute, The Ames Laboratory (Dept. of Energy) $164,998
 
Summary: Issues of immediate scarcity of materials are of vital importance to the U.S. national economy, but equally important is the potential for scarcity in the longer term. As a component of the materials criticality research at Yale University, we are developing a set of global-level scenarios for material supply and demand for the period 2015-2050. These scenarios are not predictions, but are visions of several feasible patterns of global development that are materials-relevant. They have the potential to address more than sixty different materials of potential interest, including catalyst metals, individual rare earths, and other energy-related elements. We propose to extend this analysis to generate detailed scenario results for a group of clean energy materials at the United States level, to include treatment of global and domestic supply, demand, and criticality. The results will provide policy-relevant information and insight for the U.S. Government and for U.S. corporations.

New Project Funding: Sara Kuebbing

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EAGER: Collaborative Research: Comprehensive Analysis of Long Term Ecological Research Survey
Yale PI: Sara Kuebbing, Postdoctoral Associate in collaboration with PI Adam Reimer (Michigan State)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $18,149
 
Summary: Long-term ecological research has the potential to provide significant insights in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of long-term research by scientists and research institutions, gaps in research priorities and experimental design still exist. To identify and prioritize opportunities for future long-term research, researchers at Yale and Michigan State University conducted a survey to gather the opinions and views of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This proposal seeks to conduct comprehensive analysis of this dataset, with over 1,100 responses from scientists nationwide. A cursory analysis of this dataset at a workshop in early 2015 demonstrated that this survey dataset was rich in ideas for future research, opportunities that could potentially facilitate this research, and barriers that could inhibit successful long-term research. Because the survey responses represent the views of a large proportion of practicing researchers and scientists within these fields, including researchers that are not currently engaged in long-term research, the analysis of this comprehensive dataset has the potential to stimulate and redirect long-term ecological research within the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology.
 
This research will analyze these survey data using standard social science methods. The survey dataset includes a combination of quantitative (ordinal and categorical) questions and qualitative (open-ended) questions. Using thematic coding, open-ended questions (which were used to solicit research priorities, opportunities, and barriers) will be transformed into categorical variables that can be analyzed quantitatively. Survey analysis will include both a broad categorization of the views of the field as a whole as well as an exploration of differences in opinions and priorities based on respondent subfield, experience, institution type, and geographic focus. Survey analysis will be primarily quantitative, including descriptive characterization of responses and comparison of mean responses among subgroups of respondents to test for differences.

New Project Funding: Alex Felson

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Baltimore Earth Stewardship Initiative Demonstration Project
PI: Alex Felson
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $14,994
 
Summary: The Earth Stewardship Initiative demonstration project brings together city managers, designers, community leaders and ecologists to envision the future of Baltimore’s people and neighborhoods, infrastructure and ecosystems. The program is part of the Ecological Society of America’s (ESA) Earth Stewardship Initiative and is organized to coincide with and harness the ESA’s Centennial meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. The project extends from the successful first Earth Stewardship Initiative (ESI) Demonstration project initiated last year in Sacramento, California. This year’s initiative seeks to link community perspectives on neighborhoods, green space, and environmental stewardship with urban ecological researchers interested in studying and shaping urban environments and strengthening communities. Teams include Baltimore City officials, the Parks & People Foundation, Baltimore Waters, Baltimore Ecosystem Study scientists, and professional firms seeking to incorporate ecological science into a community-based planning, education, and outreach process. Teams will add value to ongoing green infrastructure projects through a series of steps that bring together ecological research experiments with community planning and urban ecosystems functioning. The values and obstacles of this approach revealed through this demonstration project can be used to inform future efforts to pursue earth stewardship and develop integrated efforts toward ecosystem resilience and human health. ESI Fellows, ecology and design students from around North America, will play an essential role within a multidisciplinary framework of local practitioners, stakeholders, and community-based groups to contribute to actual planning projects. Through this summer effort and a fall course at Yale, we hope to improve implementable plans to enhance resiliency, promote biodiversity and habitats, while engaging in revitalization efforts and supporting community health, education, and outreach objectives.

New Project Funding: Mark Bradford

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Understanding local controls on wood decomposition in a regional context
PI: Mark Bradford
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $149,901

Summary: A critical determinant of the carbon balance of forests is the rate at which dead wood decays. This is determined by the rate at which dead wood is formed and the rate at which it breaks down, or decomposes. Dead wood is also a hotspot for other nutrients to accumulate and it is a home for many species of animals, plants and microbes. Because trees contain a lot of carbon, our understanding of how the carbon cycle might be changing requires a better understanding of the wood decomposition process. With that in mind, this project will decompose logs from five common US tree species across a gradient spanning northeastern to southeastern US temperate forests. Potential controls on wood decomposition rates will be manipulated experimentally, such as the density of dead wood and the types of wood-decomposing fungi growing on the logs. Other factors, such as soil nutrient content, temperature and moisture will be monitored. The tree logs will be collected after a year of decay in the field and brought into the laboratory to assess their decomposition extent and associated wood-decaying fungi. The data will then be analyzed to determine wood decomposition rates under the different conditions. Information from this project will be used to refine predictions of carbon-cycle changes and the effects of environmental change on forests. The results will also provide guidance to the forest industry on management of dead wood stocks in forest. The importance of natural wood decay will be communicated through a collaborative effort with the Peabody Museum of Natural History, by creating "living" dead wood exhibits for public display and use in educating visiting middle-school students.

New Project Funding: Liza Comita

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Collaborative Research: Genetic diversity, resistance genes, and negative density dependence in tropical tree seedling dynamics
Yale PI: Liza Comita, in collaboration with PI James Marden and Co-PI Claude dePamphilis (Penn State), and PI Scott Mangan (Washington Univ/STRI)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $158,545

Summary: Negative density dependence (NDD), i.e., reduced growth or survival with increasing densities of conspecific neighbors, has long been recognized to play a role in maintaining diversity in species rich communities, such as tropical forests. Recent studies have revealed that NDD is also related to species abundances within local communities. Specifically, locally rare tree species suffer more from the density and proximity of conspecific neighbors than common species, primarily due to attack by host-specific soil pathogens. This project will test a novel hypothesis to explain this pattern: rare species suffer stronger negative conspecific effects because they have reduced polymorphism at the local population and seedling cohort level in their resistance (R) genes. The rationale is that rare species are likely to have experienced genetic bottlenecks, inbreeding, drift, and have fewer pollen donors, all of which can reduce the genetic diversity of their offspring, including critical R genes, which undergo diversifying selection. Thus, seedling cohorts of rare species, being more homogeneous in R gene alleles, are likely to be co-susceptible to more pathogens (and the neighbors that harbor and spread them) than common species, which would in turn serve to keep them rare. We will test this hypothesis in an intensively studied forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama using an integrated combination of transcriptomics, experimental studies of pathogen-mediated seedling mortality, and spatially explicit simulations to examine effects of distance and genetic similarity on disease transmission.

New Project Funding: Xuhui Lee

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Deuterium Excess of Water Vapor in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
PI: Xuhui Lee
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $467,517

Summary: This research will explore the utility of water vapor isotope observations for attribution of vapor to remote source regions, local influences and transport in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The emphasis is on “deuterium excess” (dx) of water vapor, a measure of the relative abundance of the D and 18O isotopologues of water. The research methodology consists of data analysis and ABL modeling. The dx data are hourly observations made with laser-based instruments in 11 climate zones in North America and in Asia. An isotopic land surface model will be used to quantify local evapotranspiration effects on the observed variations in dx. Equilibrium boundary layer calculations and large-eddy simulations will be used to infer the dx signal of the vapor in the free atmosphere and its entrainment effect on the ABL dx. Trajectory analysis will identify contributions from remote source regions. The project will yield new isotopic constraints on the linkage between the atmospheric and the land branches of the hydrological cycle.

New Project Funding: Peter Raymond

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Collaborative Research: Linking microbial diversity, gene expression, and the transformation of terrestrial organic matter in major U.S. rivers
Yale PI: Peter Raymond, in collaboration with PI Byron Crump (Oregon State), Co-PI George Aiken (USGS), and PI Aron Stubbins (Univ. of Georgia)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $293,972

Summary: Rivers are the principle conduits between the major global organic carbon stores on land and those in the ocean. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a master variable in rivers, impacting light attenuation, metal transport, and metabolism. Riverine bacteria rely on DOM for sustenance and, in using DOM, respire a fraction and alter the composition of the remaining DOM. The relationship between microbes and DOM is a crucial but poorly understood shaper of river ecosystem function. One major gap is our understanding of specific metabolic capabilities of bacteria and how they interact with organic matter quality to carry out the key ecosystem function of transforming and metabolizing riverborne DOM. Integrating new and cutting-edge tools in genetics and DOM geochemistry, this project will describe in molecular detail the ecological and genetic mechanisms by which terrestrial DOM is modified and mineralized to carbon dioxide during transport from land to sea by determining the interactions and feedbacks between microbial functional diversity, gene expression, and DOM metabolism in U.S. rivers.

New Project Funding: Jennifer Marlon & Anthony Leiserowitz

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Collaborative Research: Multi-scale Modeling of Public Perceptions of Heat Wave Risk
Yale Co-PIs: Jennifer Marlon and Anthony Leiserowitz, in collaboration with PI Peter Howe (Utah State)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $223,141

Summary: This project will investigate how personal experience and local context shapes risk perceptions and responses to heat waves. Extreme heat events are currently the leading weather-related cause of death in the U.S. and have numerous impacts on vital social systems including food, water, energy and infrastructure. Extreme heat events are also projected to become more frequent and intense over the 21st century. It is vital to understand how both the public at large and vulnerable populations perceive the risks of extreme heat, how they decide to take action to mitigate these risks, and how their prior experiences shape future responses. This project will collect nationally representative survey data on heat wave risk perceptions, develop a multilevel model to identify individual and socio-environmental predictors of risk perceptions, and implement the model to map risk perceptions across the U.S.

New Project Funding: Jacob Bukoski (Advisor: Rob Bailis)

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Assessing Heterogeneity in Organic Municipal Solid Waste for Optimized Urban Biogas Production
Fellow: Jacob Bukoski, MESc Student
Sponsor: NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP)
 
Summary: Bangkok currently produces one of the highest municipal solid waste generation rates of megacities within the developing world, at over 11,000 tons per day. The majority of Bangkok’s organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is landfilled, with adverse impacts on both public health and the environment through degradation of water resources and large releases of the potent greenhouse gas methane. One commonly accepted method for management of OFMSW is anaerobic digestion (AD). Anaerobic digestion of OFMSW has numerous benefits: voluminous production of biogas (a biogenic gas that may be combusted for electricity and heat production), reduction of landfilled waste volume, reduction of methane emissions, and production of a high-quality organic fertilizer by-product. However, variations in biochemical composition of organic waste streams largely dictate the stability of biogas production, as heterogeneities in feedstocks can cause inhibition of the microbiological processes that produce biogas. For example, significant differences in moisture content between two areas may necessitate the implementation of different AD technologies, such as wet, dry, or a wet-dry combination of AD. Additionally, OFMSW collection infrastructures can be complicated and expensive due to waste originating from numerous sources over large spatial areas. Understanding how generation of OFMSW varies over urban to exurban spatial scales will better inform strategic homogenization of AD feedstock waste streams, more efficient collection infrastructure, and appropriate siting of future biogas production plants for the sustainable management of OFMSW.

New Project Funding: Alark Saxena & Chad Oliver

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Develop a Pilot-Integrated Forest Landscape and Livelihood Management Tool for REDD+ in India
PI: Alark Saxena; Co-PI: Chad Oliver
Sponsor: Tetra Tech ARD (Prime: USAID) $61,250

Summary: The final deliverable through this contract is a pilot (Proof of concept) Integrated Forest Landscape and Livelihood Management System (ILLMS) that will be responsive to stakeholders’ requirements, and tested in application in Madhya Pradesh Forest-PLUS landscapes in India. The Pilot integrated tool will be able to demonstrate the temporal growth and dynamics of forests in the area. It will also be able to model the consequences of different forest management policy options from forest carbon, bio-diversity and household livelihood point of view. If the concept does prove useful and feasible Forest-PLUS may support further steps to deploy ILLMS in other landscapes in India, to provide training in its use in SFDs, and to institutionalize ILLMS in forestry practice and management.

New Project Funding: Arthur Middleton

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Wiggins Fork Elk Herd Migration Study
PI: Arthur Middleton, Postdoctoral Fellow
Sponsor: U.S. Forest Service - Shoshone National Forest $16,547

Summary: Middleton is currently conducting a study of elk migration across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). The study relies mostly on the analysis of existing data from GPS collared elk, which are available for all but one of the major elk herds in the GYE. No GPS collar data exists for the Wiggins Fork elk herd, which summers largely on the Shoshone and Bridger-Teton National Forests and migrates to mixed-ownership winter ranges near Dubois, Wyoming. This is the one elk herd in the GYE for which fine scale spatial and temporal information on migration are not available. The goal of this project is to capture approximately 15 elk from the Wiggins Fork herd on their winter range, and then instrument them with GPS collars capable of gathering fine scale movement data for two years. This work will complete the dataset needed for the ecosystem-wide analysis of elk migration.

New Project Funding: Marian Chertow

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The Fourth Symposium on Industrial Ecology for Young Professionals (SIEYP IV)
PI: Marian Chertow
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $49,775

Summary: Funding will support the fourth Symposium on Industrial Ecology for Young Professionals (SIEYP IV), to be held in Surrey, UK on July 11, 2015. Following the first three symposiums on Industrial Ecology for Young Professionals in 2009, 2011, and 2013, SIEYP IV is to be held in connection and immediately following the biannual International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE) conference, and is planned, organized, and attended by students and young professionals. It aims at promoting communication among graduate students and post-doctoral researchers in industrial ecology (IE) about their research, ideas, and experiences. This project is organized by the Student Chapter of the International Society for Industrial Ecology in an effort to encourage and financially support participation by students and post-doctoral researchers in the symposium and the ISIE 2015 Conference immediately preceding it. The theme of SIEYP IV is "Envisioning Future Agendas in Industrial Ecology", reflecting the themes and objectives of the biannual ISIE conference it follows.

New Project Funding: Karen Seto

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Synthesis of LCLUC studies on Urbanization: State of the Art, Gaps in Knowledge, and New Directions for Remote Sensing Science
PI: Karen Seto
Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration $779,991

Summary: The overarching goal of the proposed research is to formulate an assessment of the patterns, drivers, and outcomes of global urban LCLUC from 1972 to 2014 by synthesizing existing remote sensing research and published studies from around the world. We aim to assess how the myriad urban remote sensing studies contribute to advancing fundamental and theoretical knowledge of urbanization, sustainability, and the functioning of the Earth system. This synthesis project will examine five key research questions. Question 1. What are the existing and available remotely sensed datasets and analyses on urban LCLUC? Question 2. What are the available change detection algorithms to characterize urban LCLUC and can we develop best practices to guide which change detection algorithms to apply across different geographies, conditions, and applications? Question 3. What are spatial patterns of urban LCLUC and how do they vary across place, time, and economic development levels? Question 4. What are the socioeconomic and policy drivers of urban LCLUC across different world regions, stages of economic development, and land use histories? Question 5. What are the effects of urban LCLUC on other land uses and land covers?

New Project Funding: James Saiers

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RAPID, GOALI: Evaluating Groundwater Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Extraction within the Marcellus Shale Play
PI: James Saiers; Co-PI: Karen Olson (Southwestern Energy)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $151,182

Summary: The question that guides this study is "Does shale gas extraction lead to contamination of freshwater aquifers by methane, deep-formation brines, or frac-water chemicals?" To address this question, a suite of measurements will be made in freshwater aquifers that underlie portions of Susquehanna County, PA, a "sweet spot" of the Marcellus Shale Play. Analysis of these measurements will allow us to: (i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variations in methane concentrations and isotopic composition that occur naturally, prior to commencement of gas extraction activities; (ii) quantify perturbations in groundwater flow that are attributable to any step in the process of shale gas development; and (iii) evaluate changes in the chemical composition of groundwater induced by hydraulic fracturing and other stages of shale gas extraction.

New Project Funding: Craig Brodersen

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Optical and Physical Deterrent for preventing ACP vector attack on Citrus
Yale PI: Craig Brodersen
Sponsor: University of Florida (Prime: Citrus Research and Development Foundation) $15,000

Summary: The long-term goal of this project is to develop a foliar kaolin particle film technology targeting specific wavelengths that will alter the feeding and oviposition behavior of Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP).

New Project Funding: Eli Fenichel

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US-UK Collab: Risks of Animal and Plant Infectious Diseases through Trade (RAPID Trade)
PI: Eli Fenichel
Sponsor: Arizona State University (Prime: National Science Foundation) $140,990

Summary: World trade is a boon to economic development but it also increases the risk of dispersing human, animal, and plant diseases. Disease impacts on crop yields and livestock put global food supplies at risk and newly emergent diseases that move from animals to humans can threaten human health. But because trade is also one of the main drivers of economic development, it is important that it not be disrupted unnecessarily by measures to protect against disease risk. Striking the right balance is currently difficult to achieve, however, because trade impacts are not systematically incorporated into national and international disease risk assessments. This award supports an interdisciplinary and international team who seek to solve that problem by developing new tools for evaluating the disease risks of world trade. The risk assessment tools produced by the project will provide animal, plant, and human health authorities at national and international levels with the capacity to make improved assessment of the disease risks associated with imports, and of the consequences of alternative trade responses. Improving disease risk management will enhance national security and economic well-being by reducing both disease dispersal and the losses caused by trade interdictions. The project also will strengthen collaborations between US and UK scientists and train graduate students and post-doctoral scientists in research.

New Project Funding: Mary Tyrrell

USFS logo
Hudson to Housatonic Conservation Initiative: Engaging Family Forest Owners in the Stewardship and Conservation of Climate Resilient Habitat and Contributing Tributaries to Reservoirs in Westchester County, NY and Fairfield County, CT
PI: Mary Tyrrell
Sponsor: Highstead Foundation (Prime: USDA Forest Service) $10,000
 
Summary: Yale’s Global Institute of Sustainable Forestry, as the lead coordinator of the Sustaining Family Forests Initiative, conducted a Tools for Engaging Landowners Effectively (TELE) workshop for the Hudson to Housatonic Conservation Initiative: Engaging Family Forest Owners in the Stewardship and Conservation of Climate Resilient Habitat and Contributing Tributaries to Reservoirs in Westchester County, NY and Fairfield County, CT. The 2-day TELE workshop covered the basic social marketing approach to landowner outreach, a review of landowner data for the region, and small group work on a case example of how to structure an effective outreach program.

New Project Funding: Anthony Leiserowitz

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TV Weathercasters and Climate Education: Expanding the Reach of Climate Matters
PI: Anthony Leiserowitz
Sponsor: George Mason University (Prime: National Science Foundation) $282,533

Summary: The Yale Project on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC) will oversee the design and implementation of two Climate Science Workshops per year, as well as ongoing professional development, for TV Weathercasters.  One workshop will be held at each of the national annual meetings of the American Meteorological Society and the National Weather Association (2014-2015; 2015-2016; 2016-2017). 

New Project Funding: Nadine Unger

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Linking multi-scale measurements and models to advance understanding of BVOC-chemistry-climate feedbacks
PI: Nadine Unger
Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration $456,705

Summary: Terrestrial ecosystem emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a critical quantity in air pollution-climate interactions. This project exploits synergies between the NASA SEAC4RS, NSF NOMADSS and NOAA SENEX field campaigns during 2013 to constrain the BVOC emission impacts on atmospheric chemical composition in the U.S. through the growing season into the fall. The specific goals of this proposal are to: (1) improve realism of BVOC emission schemes for next generation global Earth system models (2) assess the impacts of BVOC emissions on oxidant and secondary aerosol formation and composition over the U.S. (3) quantify future global change impacts on BVOC emissions and projections of ozone, organic aerosol and methane for a broad range of possible scenarios (2010-2100). To achieve these goals, we will probe multiple atmospheric measurements from flux towers, aircraft campaigns and satellites in combination with a vegetation model run at the site-level, regional and global scales. The model incorporates two state-of-the-science conceptually different BVOC emission algorithms (photosynthesis-based and MEGAN v3.0) that are embedded within the same host simulation framework. A global carbon-chemistry-climate model based on NASA GISS Model- E2 with interactive terrestrial ecosystems (Yale-E2) will be employed to interpret the aircraft measurements and perform the future projections. The project will provide new quantitative insights into BVOC emissions and BVOC-chemistry-climate feedbacks in the contemporary and future worlds.

New Project Funding: Anobha Gurung (Advisor: Michelle Bell)

EPA Logo
Susceptibility to exposure from traffic related air pollution and human health burden in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
PI: Anobha Gurung, PhD Student
Sponsor: Environmental Protection Agency STAR Fellowship

Summary: Research is critically needed to quantify exposure to air pollution and human health burden in growing Asian cities. As part of her EPA STAR Fellowship, Anobha will investigate exposure to traffic related air pollution and human health burden with characterization of susceptibility factors (e.g. age) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing nations in South Asia. A review of studies conducted in Nepal of air pollution and human health, indicated a dearth of research with the few existing studies suggesting potentially serious health consequences. Here annual average urban population has grown 3.92% in the past ten years. Her previous research identified high air pollution in this region, a result of old vehicles, fuel adulteration, poor road infrastructure, unplanned urbanization, bowl like topography, and growing population. However, despite the rising urban population and traffic identified as the main source of pollution no study of traffic related air pollution and human health has been conducted in Kathmandu Valley.

New Project Funding: Jennifer Marlon

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Collaborative Research: Testing hypotheses about human and climate impacts on fire over the past millennium using paleodata syntheses and global fire modeling
Yale PI: Jennifer Marlon, in collaboration with PI Brian Magi (UNC-Charlotte) and PI Patrick Bartlein (University of Oregon)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $114,291

Summary: Fire is a fundamental process in the Earth system. In recent centuries, human use and suppression of fire and both natural and anthropogenic climate change have altered the types and spatio-temporal patterns of fires globally. In the future, as global temperatures continue to increase, fire activity is projected to increase in much of the world. While the fire projections are vital for managing physical and human systems, they are highly uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty, a better understanding of how fires interact with humans, climate, and vegetation is required - not only under current conditions, which have been extensively studied - but also in the past, when conditions were very different from today.

The proposed work will address three timely research objectives designed to use observed patterns of fire activity in the past to inform global fire modeling of the past, present and future.  The project’s data and tools include a unique global charcoal database containing detailed records of biomass burning over the past 1000 years, multiple sources of paleoclimate data and simulations from the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3), two different global land-cover reconstructions, and a global fire model. To achieve the objectives, an established paleofire database (the Global Charcoal Database) will be expanded to include over 50% more records, and an existing global fire model based on present-day conditions will be adapted for simulations of the past millennium by testing individual fire model dependencies against observations of climate and fire over the past millennium.

New Project Funding: Eli Fenichel

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Coastal SEES Collaborative Research: Adaptations of fish and fishing communities to rapid climate velocities
Yale PI: Eli Fenichel, in collaboration with PI Malin Pinsky (Rutgers) and PI Simon Levin (Princeton)
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $150,514

Summary: Climate change presents a profound challenge to the sustainability of coastal systems, but most research has ignored the important coupling between human responses to climate effects and the cumulative impacts of these responses on ecosystems. Fisheries are a prime example of this feedback: climate drives shifts in species distributions and abundances, and fisheries adapt to these shifts. However, changes in the location and intensity of fishing also have major ecosystem impacts. This project’s goal is to understand how climate and fishing interact to affect the long-term sustainability of marine populations and the ecosystem services they support. The project focuses on fisheries for summer flounder and hake on the northeast U.S. continental shelf, which target some of the most rapidly shifting species in North America. The project addresses three questions: 1) How do the interacting impacts of fishing and climate velocities affect the persistence, abundance, and distribution of marine fishes? 2) How do fishers and fishing communities adapt to species range shifts and related changes in abundance? and 3) Which institutions create incentives that sustain or maximize the value of natural capital and comprehensive social wealth in the face of rapid climate velocities?

New Project Funding: Alex Felson, James Axley, & Graeme Berlyn

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The transformation of existing green wall technology to provide urban heat rejection infrastructure
PI: Alex Felson
Co-PIs: James Axley, and Graeme Berlyn
Sponsor: National Science Foundation $299,960

Summary: Green walls provide benefits that have fostered the growth of a new industry as they can passively moderate exterior wall surface temperatures and thereby reduce building heating and cooling loads, attenuate surface temperature variations and solar exposure that degrade exterior wall finishes, and provide ecosystem service benefits including air pollution and particulate removal, mitigation of urban heat island effects, and urban wildlife habitats. To date, these benefits do not offset the costs of green walls, and therefore, the market for green walls remains limited. This research will address problems that must be resolved to transform existing green wall technology into an active technology for process heat rejection (i.e., principally, here, for chilled water generation), and thereby expand the market to a wide range of applications from households to institutions and industry. The objective is to provide a sustainable alternative to wet cooling tower technology that maintains the benefits of existing green walls, employing their methods of construction and operation, while avoiding the shortcomings of wet cooling tower technologies (i.e., single use and contamination of cooling water).

New Project Funding: Ben Cashore

UNEP
Small Scale Funding Agreement Relating to Regional Delivery of the REDD+ Academy
PI: Ben Cashore
Sponsor: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) $199,942

Summary: The overall objective of the project is to ensure the development and delivery of a strong process for capacity building in which the needs of participants are tied to the delivery of on-the-ground REDD+ readiness activities through a long-term and sustainable learning experience.  The partnership is intended to produce pre-course material and complete learning modules as well as quality control for the 'REDD+ Academy'. The materials and framework required for launching a massive open online course (MOOC) on REDD+ and Land-use Planning will also be developed.

Karen Seto Succeeds David Skelly as Associate Dean & Doctoral Studies Director

seto skelly
Karen Seto, a professor of geography and urbanization at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (F&ES), has been named the School’s next Associate Dean for Research and Director of Doctoral Studies.
 
She succeeds David Skelly, an F&ES professor of ecology who was appointed as the new director of the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History beginning July 1.
 
For Seto, who has been at Yale for six years, the new position offers a chance to reassess how the School prepares its students for a changing academic world — and to continue the work started by Skelly to integrate the realms of research and doctoral studies at F&ES.

New Project Funding: Kris Covey (Advisor: Mark Bradford)

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Dissertation Research: Quantification and Characterization of the Production of Methane in Living Trees
PI: Mark Bradford (Faculty Advisor), Doctoral Candidate: Kris Covey
Sponsor: National Science Foundation (Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant) $21,645

Summary: Dissertation research undertaken thus far demonstrates the prevalence of elevated methane concentrations in upland hardwood dominated eastern forests, illuminates distinct species level patterns in production potential, and suggests that the highest methane production rates drive substantial through bark emission. Initial estimates indicate the magnitude of this unrecognized source could be on the same order as the upland forest methane sink. The PIs propose expanding their current work to achieve three primary objectives: 1. Determine the extent to which methane production observed in the trunks of eastern hardwood trees also occurs in conifer-dominated western forests. 2. Assess the contribution of methane production in dead wood and debris to overall forest methane flux. 3. Associate measured methane production with microbial community dynamics in wood. This work is transformative because it asks whether methane production from understudied methane sources changes forests from net methane sinks to sources. We know that heart rot is ubiquitous in forests but its part in global CH4 budgets has not been considered until publication of our preliminary data. Initial estimates from our paper suggest that heart-rot methane emissions are equivalent in global warming potential to about 18% of the carbon dioxide likely sequestered by the stand in which we worked. The studies proposed here will allow for the expansion of our current work by providing the data necessary build our initial CH4 rate estimates beyond the individual forest stand to a robust estimate of continental emissions of methane originating in living trees. Furthermore, these data will help to disentangle the contribution of in situ microbial-born methane from the other confirmed plant-methane pathways.

New Project Funding: Thomas Graedel

USGS logo
Anthropogenic Life Cycles of Scarce Metals
PI: Thomas Graedel
Sponsor: U.S. Geological Survey $48,469

Summary: Material flow analysis approaches have been used widely over the past decade to characterize the life cycles of the major metals. A similar situation has not occurred for the scarce metals, many of which are uniquely useful constituents of new technological development. This is partly due to the fact that information regarding those cycles is less readily available. However, as part of a larger criticality of metals project, we have developed information on the extraction, use, discard, and loss of a number of the scarce metals. We will use this information to construct global and U.S. life cycles for year 2008 for four scarce metals: gallium, indium, germanium, and rhenium; these are the first U.S. cycles ever to be characterized in detail for these metals. The results of this study will help to build further knowledge on the less common (“scarcer”) metals, many of which have been identified by the USGS Minerals Research Program to be of increasing importance to the U.S. national economy. Understanding the whole system of material flows can help to quantify potential primary and secondary source strengths, manage metal use more wisely, and protect the environment.

New Project Funding: Shimon Anisfeld

CTSeaGrant
The Future of Long Island Sound Tidal Marshes: Understanding Marsh Migration into Different Upland Types
PI: Shimon Anisfeld; Co-PI: Andrew Kemp (Tufts University)
Sponsor: Connecticut Sea Grant $129,994

Summary: Shimon Anisfeld and his colleague Andrew Kemp will investigate the ability of salt marshes to migrate upland as sea levels rise. Healthy marshes protect shorelines from storm impacts and serve as nursery habitat for many animals. Their successful migration will depend on many factors such as elevation, hydrology, soils, plants, and animals.
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Recent Publications

  • Esty, D. “Toward a Sustainable Global Economy: An Initiative for G20 Leadership.” Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics 5.2 (2017): 46-60. Link
  • Salemdeeb, R., D. F. Vivanco, A. Al-Tabbaa, and E. K. H. J. zu Ermgassen. “A holistic approach to the environmental evaluation of food waste prevention.” Waste Management 59 (2017): 442-450. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.09.042
  • Freire-González, J., D. F. Vivanco, and I. Puig-Ventosa. “Economic structure and energy savings from energy efficiency in households.” Ecological Economics 131 (2017): 12-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.08.023
  • Güneralp, B., Y. Zhou, D.Ürge-Vorsatz, M. Gupta, S. Yu, P. L. Patel, M. Fragkias, X. Li, and K. C. Seto. . “Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1606035114
  • Rosenblatt, A. E., L. M. Smith-Ramesh, and O. J. Schmitz. “Interactive effects of multiple climate change variables on food web dynamics: modeling the effects of changing temperature, CO2, and water availability on a tri-tropic food web.” Food Webs (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.fooweb.2016.10.002
  • Lambert, M. R., A. B. Stoler, M. S. Smylie, R. A. Relyea, and D. K. Skelly. “Interactive effects of road salt and leaf litter on wood frog sex ratios ad sexual size dimorphism.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2016-0324
  • Smith, J. R, S. A. Queenborough, P. Alvia, H. Romero-Saltos and R. Valencia. “No strong evidence for increasing liana abundance in the Myristicaceae of a Neotropical aseasonal rain forest.” Ecology (2017). DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1657
  • Shepack, A., L. K. Freidenburg, and D. K. Skelly. “Species absence in developed landscapes: an experimental evaluation.” Landscape Ecology (2017). DOI: 10.1007/s10980-016-0464-9
  • Berry, K. C. and D. Finoff. “Choosing between adaptation and prevention with an increasing probability of a pandemic.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 132.Part B (2016): 177-192. DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2016.06.007
  • Shen, L., F. Melnikov, J. Roethle, A. Gudibanda, R. Judson, J. Zimmerman, and P. Anastas. “Coupled Molecular Design Diagrams to Guide Safer Chemical Design with Reduced Likelihood of Perturbing the NRF2-ARE Antioxidant Pathway and Inducing Cytotoxicity.” Green Chemistry 18.23 (2016): 6387-6394. DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02073A
  • Saarela, S., S. Holm, A. Grafström, S. Schnell, E. Næsset, T. G. Gregoire, R. F. Nelson, and G. Ståhl. “Hierarchical model-based inference for forest inventory utilizing three sources of information.” Annals of Forest Science 73.4 (2016): 895-910. DOI: 10.1007/s13595-016-0590-1
  • Ene, L. T., E. Næsset, T. Gobakken, E. W. Mauya, O-M. Ballandsas, T. G. Gregoire, G. Ståhl, and E. Zahabu. “Large-scale estimation of aboveground biomass in miombo woodlands using airborne laser scanning and national forest inventory data.” Remote Sensing of Environment 186 (2016): 626-636. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.09.006
  • Schanes, K., S. Giljum, and E. Hertwich. “Low carbon lifestyles: A framework to structure consumption strategies and options to reduce carbon footprints.” Journal of Cleaner Production 139 (2016): 1033-1043. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.08.154
  • Ciacci, L., P. Nuss, B. K. Reck, T. T. Werner, and T. E. Graedel. “Metal criticality determination for Australia, the US, and the planet – comparing 2008 and 2012 results.” Resources 5.4 (2016): 29. DOI: 10.3390/resources5040029
  • Schmitz, O. J. and G. C. Trussell. “Multiple stressors, state-dependence and predation risk — foraging trade-offs: toward a modern concept of trait-mediated indirect effects in communities and ecosystems.” Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 12 (2016): 6-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.08.003
  • Finnoff, D., R. D. Horan, J. F. Shogren, C. Reeling, and K. Berry. “Natural vs Anthropogenic Risk Reduction: Facing Invasion Risks Involving Multi-Stable Outcomes.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 132.Part B (2016): 113-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2016.05.015
  • Gillingham, K., J. Bushnell, M. Fowlie, M. Greenstone, A. Krupnick, C. Kolstad, A. Morris, R. Schmalensee, and J. Stock. “Reforming the Federal Coal Leasing Program.” Science 354.4316 (2016): 1096-1098. DOI: 10.1126/science.aak9851
  • Saunois, M., P. Bousquet, B. Poulter, A. Peregon, P. Ciais, J.G. Canadell, E.J. Dlugokencky, G. Etiope, D. Bastviken, S. Houweling, G. Janssens-Maenhout, F. N. Tubiello, S. Castaldi, R. B. Jackson, M. Alexe, V. K. Arora, D. J. Beerling, P. Bergamaschi, D. R. Blake, G. Brailsford, V. Brovkin, L. Bruhwiler, C. Crevoisier, P. Crill, K. Covey,C. Curry, C. Frankenberg, N. Gedney, L. Höglund-Isaksson, M. Ishizawa, A. Ito, F. Joos, H.-S. Kim, T. Kleinen, P. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. Langenfelds, R. Locatelli, T. Machida, S. Maksyutov, K. C. McDonald, J. Marshall, J. R. Melton, I. Morino, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, F.-J. W. Parmentier, P. K. Patra, C. Peng, S. Peng, G. P. Peters, I. Pison, C. Prigent, R. Prinn, M. Ramonet, W. J. Riley, M. Saito, M. Santini, R. Schroeder, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, P. Steele, A. Takizawa, B. F. Thornton, H. Tian, Y. Tohjima, N. Viovy, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, G. R. van der Werf, R. Weiss, C. Wiedinmyer, D. J. Wilton, A. Wiltshire, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, X. Xu, Y. Yoshida, B. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Q. Zhu. “The global methane budget 2000-2012.” Earth System Science Data 8.2 (2016): 697-751. DOI: 10.5194/essd-8-697-2016
  • Fenichel, E. P. and R. D. Horan. “Tinbergen and tipping points: Could some thresholds be policy-induced?.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 132.Part B (2016): 137-152. DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2016.06.014
  • Ringvall, A. H., G. Ståhl, L.T. Ene, E. Næsset, T. Gobakken, and T. G. Gregoire. “A poststratified ratio estimator for model-assisted biomass estimation in sample-based airborne laser scanning surveys.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46.11 (2016): 1386-1395. DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2016-0158
  • O’Connor, M. P., J. B. Zimmerman, P. T. Anastas, and D. L. Plata. “A Strategy for Material Supply Chain Sustainability: Enabling a Circular Economy in the Electronics Industry through Green Engineering.” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 4.11 (2016): 5879-5888. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01954
  • Báez, S., D. A. Donoso, S. A. Queenborough, L. Jaramillo, R. Valencia, and O. Dangles. “Ant Mutualism Increases Long-Term Growth and Survival of a Common Amazonian Tree.” The American Naturalist 188.5 (2016): 567-575. DOI: 10.1086/688401
  • Coish, P., B. W. Brooks, E. P. Gallagher, T. J. Kavanagh, A. Voutchkova-Kostal, J. B. Zimmerman, and P. T. Anastas. “Current Status and Future Challenges in Molecular Design for Reduced Hazard.” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 4.11 (2016): 5900-5906. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02089
  • Krishnadas, M., A. Kumar, and L.S. Comita. “Environmental gradients structure tropical tree assemblages at the regional scale.” Journal of Vegetation Science 27.6 (2016): 1117-1128. DOI: 10.1111/jvs.12438
  • Covey, K.R., C.P. Bueno de Mesquita, B. Oberle, D.S. Maynard, C. Bettigole, T.W. Crowther, M.C. Duguid, B. Steven, A.E. Zanne, M. Lapin, M.S. Ashton, C.D. Oliver, X. Lee, and M.A. Bradford. “Greenhouse trace gases in deadwood.” Biogeochemistry 130.3 (2016): 215-226. DOI: 10.1007/s10533-016-0253-1
  • Massetti, E., R. Mendelsohn, and S. Chonabayashi. “How Well Do Degree Days over the Growing Season Capture the Effect of Climate on Farmland Values?.” Energy Economics 60 (2016): 144-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2016.09.004
  • Yue X., T. Keenan, W. J. Munger, and N. Unger. . “Limited effect of ozone reductions on the 20-year photosynthesis trend at Harvard forest.” Global Change Biology 22.11 (2016): 3750-3759. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13300
  • Tucker, M. E. and J. Grim. Living Cosmology: Christian Responses to Journey of the Universe. Ed. M.E. Tucker and J. Grim Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2016. Link
  • Cuneo, I.F., T.M. Knipfer, C.R. Brodersen, and A.J. McElrone. “Mechanical failure of fine root cortical cells initiates plant hydraulic decline during drought.” Plant Physiology 172.3 (2016): 1669-1678. DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.00923
  • Bradford, M.A. “Re-visioning soil food webs.” Soil Biology & Biochemistry 102 (2016): 1-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.08.010
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