Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling



Yue, X., T. Keenan, W.J. Munger, and N. Unger, Limited effect of ozone reductions on the 20-year photosynthesis trend at Harvard forest, Global Change Biology, accepted, 2016.

Strada, S., and N. Unger, Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4213-4234, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4213-2016, 2016.


Zheng, Y., N. Unger, A. Hodzic, L. Emmons, C. Knote, S. Tilmes, J.-F. Lamarque, and P. Yu, Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13487-13506, doi:10.5194/acp-15-13487-2015, 2015.

Yue, X., N. Unger, and Y. Zheng, Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past three decadesAtmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11931-11948, 2015.

Strada, S., N. Unger, and X. Yue, Observed aerosol-induced radiative effect on plant productivity in the eastern United States, Atmos. Environ., 122, 463-476, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.051, 2015.

Brasseur, G.P., M. Gupta, B.E Anderson, S. Balasubramanian, S. Barrett, D. Duda, G. Fleming, P.M Forster, J. Fuglestvedt, A. Gettelman, R.N. Halthore, S.D. Jacob, M.Z Jacobson, A. Khodayari, K-N. Liou, M.T. Lund, R.C. Miake-Lye, P. Minnis, S. Olsen, J.E. Penner, R. Prinn, U. Schumann, H.B. Selkirk, A. Sokolov, N. Unger, P. Wolfe, H-W. Wong, D.W. Wuebbles, B. Yi, P. Yang, and C. Zhou, Impact of Aviation on Climate: FAA's Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) Phase II, accepted for publication in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2015.

Dang, H., and N. Unger, Contrasting regional versus global radiative forcing by megacity pollution emissions, Atmos. Environ., 119, 322–329, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.055, 2015.
(Free access)

Yue, X., N. Unger, T.F. Keenan, X. Zhang, and C.S. Vogel, Probing the past 30-year phenology trend of US deciduous forests, Biogeosciences, 12, 4693-4709, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4693-2015, 2015.

Zheng, Y., N. Unger, M.P. Barkley, and X. Yue, Relationships between photosynthesis and formaldehyde as a probe of isoprene emission, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8559-8576, doi:10.5194/acp-15-8559-2015, 2015.

Yue, X., and N. Unger, The Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere model version 1.0: description, evaluation and implementation into NASA GISS ModelE2, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2399-2417, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2399-2015, 2015.

Nazarenko, L., and 36 others including N. Unger, Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7,  244-267, doi:10.1002/2014MS000403, 2015.


Morita, H., S. Yang, N. Unger, P.L. Kinney, Global health impacts of future aviation emissions under alternative control scenarios, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 14659–14667, doi:10.1021/es5055379, 2014.

Unger, N., On the role of plant volatiles in anthropogenic global climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL061616, 2014.

Unger, N., Human land-use-driven reduction of forest volatiles cools global climate, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2347, 2014.   
Yue, X. and N. Unger, Ozone vegetation damage effects on gross primary productivity in the United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9137-9153, doi:10.5194/acp-14-9137-2014, 2014.
Miller, R., and 42 others including N. Unger, CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, 441-477, doi:10.1002/2013MS000266, 2014.
Schmidt, G.A., and 44 others including N. Unger, Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, 141-184, doi:10.1002/2013MS000265, 2014.

Unger, N., and X. Yue, Strong chemistry-climate feedbacks in the Pliocene, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058773, 2014.


Unger, N., Isoprene emission variability through the 20th centuryJ. Geophys. Res., 118, 13,606–13,613, doi:10.1002/2013JD020978, 2013.

Olsen, S.C., G.P. Brasseur, D.J. Wuebbles, S. Barrett, H. Dang, S.D. Eastham, M.Z. Jacobson, A. Khodayari, H. Selkirk, A. Sokolov, and N. Unger, Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6004–6009, doi: 10.1002/2013GL057660, 2013.

Unger, N., Harper, K., Zheng, Y., Kiang, N. Y., Aleinov, I., Arneth, A., Schurgers, G., Amelynck, C., Goldstein, A., Guenther, A., Heinesch, B., Hewitt, C. N., Karl, T., Laffineur, Q., Langford, B., A. McKinney, K., Misztal, P., Potosnak, M., Rinne, J., Pressley, S., Schoon, N., and Serça, D, Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243-10269, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10243-2013, 2013.

Unger, N. Y. Zhao, and H. Dang, Mid-21st century chemical forcing of climate by the civil aviation sector, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi: 10.1002/grl.50161, 2013.


Fiore, A., V. Naik, D.V. Spracklen, A. Steiner, N. Unger, M. Prather, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. Dalsøren, V. Eyring, G. A. Folberth, P. Ginoux, L.W. Horowitz, B. Josse, J. F. Lamarque, I. A. MacKenzie , T. Nagashima, F.M. O'Connor, M. Righi, S. Rumbold, D.T. Shindell, R.B. Skeie, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, T. Takemura, and G. Zeng, Global air quality and climate, Chem. Soc. Rev., doi: 10.1039/C2CS35095E, 2012.
Unger, N., Global climate forcing by criteria air pollutants, Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 37, doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-082310-100824, 2012.
Unger, N., and J.L. Pan, New Directions: Enduring ozone, Atmos. Environ., 55, 456-458, 2012.


Unger, N., Global climate impact of civil aviation for standard and desulfurized jet fuel, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L20803, doi:10.1029/2011GL049289, 2011.

Unger publications 2010-2000

Unger, N., Short-lived non-CO2 pollutants and climate policy: fair trade?, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 5332–5333, doi:10.1021/es1012214, 2010.
Unger, N., T.C. Bond, J.S. Wang, D.M. Koch, S.E. Menon, D.T. Shindell, and S.E. Bauer, Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107, 3382-3387, doi:10.1073/pnas.0906548107, 2010.
Arneth, A., N. Unger, M. Kulmala, and M.O. Andreae, Clean the air, heat the planet?, Science, 326, 672-673, doi:10.1126/science.1181568, 2009.
Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S.E. Bauer, Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions, Science, 326, 716-718, doi:10.1126/science.1174760, 2009.
Unger, N., S. Menon, D.M. Koch, and D.T. Shindell, Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4155-4129, 2009.
Unger, N., D.T. Shindell, and J.S. Wang, Climate forcing by the on-road transportation and power generation sectors, Atmos. Environ., 43, 3077-3085, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.03.021, 2009.
Menon, S., N. Unger, D. Koch, J. Francis, T. Garrett, I. Sednev, D. Shindell, and D. Streets, Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030, Environ. Res. Lett., 3, 024004, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/024004, 2008.
Shindell, D., J.-F. Lamarque, N. Unger, D. Koch, G. Faluvegi, S. Bauer, and H. Teich, Climate forcing and air quality change due to regional emissions reductions by economic sector, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7101-7113, doi:10.5194/acp-8-7101-2008, 2008.
Unger, N., D.T. Shindell, D.M. Koch, and D.G. Streets, Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D02306, doi:10.1029/2007JD008683, 2008.
Bauer, S.E., D. Koch, N. Unger, S.M. Metzger, D.T. Shindell, and D.G. Streets, Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: Importance relative to other aerosol species and tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5043-5059, 2007.
Hansen, J., and 46 others, including N. Unger, Dangerous human-made interference with climate: A GISS modelE study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2287-2312, doi:10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007, 2007.
Hansen, J., and 46 others, including N. Unger, Climate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS modelE, Clim. Dynam., 29, 661-696, doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8, 2007.

Koch, D., T.C. Bond, D. Streets, and N. Unger, Linking future aerosol radiative forcing to shifts in source activities, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05821, doi:10.1029/2006GL028360, 2007.
Koch, D., T.C. Bond, D. Streets, N. Unger, and G. van der Werf, Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02205, doi:10.1029/2005JD007024, 2007.
Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, S.E. Bauer, D. Koch, N. Unger, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, G.A., and D.G. Streets, Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008753, 2007.
Unger, N., D.T. Shindell, D.M. Koch, and D.G. Streets, Cross influences of ozone and sulfate precursor emissions changes on air quality and climate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103, 4377-4380, doi:10.1073/pnas.0508769103, 2006.
Unger, N., D.T. Shindell, D.M. Koch, M. Amann, J. Cofala, and D.G. Streets, Influences of man-made emissions and climate changes on tropospheric ozone, methane and sulfate at 2030 from a broad range of possible futures, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12313, doi:10.1029/2005JD006518, 2006.
Shindell, D.T., and 42 others, including N. Unger, Multi-model simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19306, doi:10.1029/2006JD007100, 2006.
Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Unger, E. Aguilar, G.A. Schmidt, D.M. Koch, S.E. Bauer, and R.L. Miller, Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4427-4459, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006, 2006.
Dentener, F., and 36 others, including N. Bell, Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB4003, doi:10.1029/2005GB002672, 2006.
Dentener, F., and 41 others, including N. Bell, The global atmospheric environment for the next generation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 3586-3594, doi:10.1021/es0523845, 2006.
Schmidt, G.A., and 35 others, including N. Bell, Present day atmospheric simulations using GISS ModelE: Comparison to in-situ, satellite and reanalysis data, J. Climate, 19, 153-192, doi:10.1175/JCLI3612.1, 2006.
Stevenson, D.S., and 40 others, including N. Bell, Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D08301, doi:10.1029/2005JD006338, 2006.
Bell, N., D. Koch, and D. Shindell, Impacts of chemistry-aerosol coupling on tropospheric ozone and sulfate simulations in a general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14305, doi:10.1029/2004JD005538, 2005.

Hansen, J., and 44 others, including N. Bell, Efficacy of climate forcings, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776, 2005.
Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G.A. Schmidt, An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021900, 2005.
Bell, N., D.E. Heard, M.J. Pilling, and A.S. Tomlin, Atmospheric lifetime as a probe of radical chemistry in the boundary layer, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2193-2205, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00157-2, 2003.
Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, and N. Bell, Preindustrial-to-present-day radiative forcing by tropospheric ozone from improved simulations with the GISS chemistry-climate GCM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1675-1702, 2003.
Bell, N., L. Hsu, D.J. Jacob, M.G. Schultz, D.R. Blake, J.H. Butler, D.B. King, J.M. Lobert, and E. Maier-Reimer, Methyl iodide: Atmospheric budget and use as a tracer of marine convection in global models, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D17), 4340, doi:10.1029/2001JD001151, 2002.
Rae, J.G.L., N. Bell, T.W. Hartquist, M.J. Pilling, and D.P. Ruffle, Reduced networks governing the fractional ionisation in interstellar molecular clouds, Astron. Astrophys., 383, 738-746, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20011748, 2002.
Green, N.J.B., T. Toniazzo, M.J. Pilling, D.P. Ruffle, N. Bell, and T.W. Hartquist, A stochastic approach to grain surface chemical kinetics, Astron. Astrophys., 375, 1111-1119, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010961, 2001.
Carslaw, N., N. Bell, A.C. Lewis, J.B. McQuaid, and M.J. Pilling, A detailed case study of isoprene chemistry during the EASE96 Mace Head campaign, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2827-2836, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00088-1, 2000.
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