Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Streams and Rivers as Integrators and Hotspots

Figure B
Making measurements in streams in rivers is similar to doing blood work in humans.  Information on the chemistry and movement of water, carbon, and nutrients in streams and rivers provides us with information on the processes occurring within the watershed.  By comparing water discharge and chemistry across watersheds, or looking for change in chemistry within a watershed we gain information on how the ecology of watersheds are influenced by climate and land-cover.   We have used this approach to look into how agricultural processes impact water discharge and chemistry, how urban activities influence water chemistry, and hydrologic variability influences inland water carbon and nutrient concentrations.  FIGURE B

Barnes, R. T., and P. A. Raymond (2010), Land-use controls on sources and processing of nitrate in small watersheds: insights from dual isotopic analysis, Ecological Applications, 20(7), 1961-1978.

Butman, D., and P. A. Raymond (2011), Significant efflux of carbon dioxide from streams and rivers in the United States, Nature Geoscience, 4(12), 839-842.

Raymond, P. A., and J. E. Saiers (2010), Event controlled DOC export from forested watersheds, Biogeochemistry.

Raymond, P. A., N. H. Oh, R. E. Turner, and W. Broussard (2008), Anthropogenically enhanced fluxes of water and carbon from the Mississippi River, Nature, 451(7177), 449-452.

Raymond, P. A., J. Hartmann, R. Lauerwald, S. Sobek, C. McDonald, M. Hoover, D. Butman, R. Striegl, E. Mayorga, C. Humborg, P. Kortelainen, H. Durr, M. Meybeck, P. Ciais and P. Guth (2013). Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters. Nature 503, 355-359.
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