Outline - Regeneration Guide

This draft outline was prepared to cover the basics of techniques and materials used in natural and artificial regeneration practices. A discussion of regeneration methods would be covered by authors handling silvicultural systems in bottomland hardwood forests.

  1. Introduction - Overview of information to be presented in this section
  2. Natural Regeneration
    • Important definitions:
      • regeneration
      • reproduction
      • advance reproduction
      • regeneration pool
      • reproduction sources
        • seedlings
        • seedling sprouts
        • stump sprouts
        • root sprouts (Figure illustrating sources)
    • Reliability of natural reproduction sources for key species (Table - list of species by probability of seeding, seedling sprouting, stump sprouting, and root sprouting)
    • Techniques to follow seed development and assess seed crops (Figure - fruit of various hardwood species, e.g. 1 and 2 year old oak fruit, ash fruit, sweetgum fruit, sugarberry fruit)
    • Seed dispersal mechanisms for key species (Table of dispersal mechanisms for key species)
    • Longevity of seed in the seed bank (Table of seed longevity for key species)
    • Germinative requirements for seed (Table of germinative requirements for key species)
    • Longevity and development of reproduction in the regeneration pool (Table of seedling shade tolerance for key species) (Table of seedling flood tolerance for key species)
    • Practices to improve the understory microenvironment or morphology of reproduction to improve establishment, and invigorate growth and development of advance reproduction
      • partial cutting
      • midstory control
      • understory weed control
      • soil scarification
      • seedling clipping
  3. Artificial Regeneration
    • Important definitions
      • direct seeding
      • underplanting
    • Direct Seeding
      • Collecting seed
      • Viability testing and handling
      • Seed storage.
      • Site preparation
      • Timing, depth, and density of sowing seed
        • Hand sowing
        • Machine sowing (Table of # seed per pound for key species)
      • Potential direct seeding problems
        • seed quality
        • species selection
        • competition
        • soil condition
        • seed predators
    • Planting
      • Obtaining seedlings
      • Judging seedling condition and handling
      • Seedling storage
      • Site preparation
      • Timing, density, and procedure of planting seedlings
        • Hand planting
        • Machine planting
      • Potential planting problems
        • seedling quality
        • planting quality
        • species selection
        • competition
        • seedling herbivory
    • Underplanting
      • Stand and site preparation
        • partial cutting
        • midstory injection
        • understory competition control
      • Seedling establishment
        • spacing
        • post-planting competition control
      • Seedling release
      • Potential problems
  4. Regeneration Evaluation Tools and Decision Models
    • revised Johnson model by Hart et al.
    • McKevlin decision tree
    • evaluating and monitoring direct seeding and planting jobs
  5. Selected References
    • Seed collection, handling and storage manual (Bonner and Vozzo)
    • Woody plant seed manual
    • Silvics of North America Volume 2 - Hardwoods
    • others

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