Malaysian Federated States of Sarawak and Sabah (M) and Brunei (B) are dark grey. Mineral soils are distributed among elevation classes <300 m a.s.l. and >300 m a.s.l.; >99% of peat soils are <300 m a.s.l. a, From 1990 to 2010, oil palm expanded from 903 km2 to 31,640 km2, occupying 9% of lowlands (<300 m a.s.l) outside of protected areas, distributed among West (W; 28%), Central (C; 40%), South (S; 8%) and East (E; 23%) Kalimantan provinces. b, In 2010, 64% of Kalimantan’s lowland area was allocated as follows: planted oil palm and awarded plantation leases (30%); logging concessions and pulp and paper plantations (Timber Leases, 24%); protected areas (10%). Residual lands, depicted in white, comprise only 31% of Kalimantan’s total land area.